Wednesday, October 10, 2012
KWAME NKRUMAH: THE FATHER OF AFRICAN NATIONALISM AND THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF GHANA
Osagyefo Dr Kwame Nkrumah (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972), P.C., was the leader of Ghana and its predecessor state, the Gold Coast, from 1951 to 1966. Overseeing the nation's independence from British colonial rule in 1957, Nkrumah was the first President of Ghana and the first Prime Minister of Ghana. An influential 20th-century advocate of Pan-Africanism, he was a founding member of the Organization of African Unity and was the winner of the Lenin Peace Prize in 1963.
Portrait of Kwame Nkrumah,Ghana`s first President
7th March 1957: Ghanian Prime Minister Kwame Nkrumah (1909 - 1972) arrives at the Assembly House in Accra for the opening of the new Parliament and the declaration of Ghana's Independence by the Duchess of Kent. (Photo by Central Press/Getty Images)
Queen Elizabeth II with Ghana`s first President Kwame Nkrumah sharing a chat during her visit to Ghana.
Nkrumah addressing the UN General Assmbly
KWAME NKRUMAH, PRIME Minister of Ghana, with Jawaharlal Nehru, in London in 1960. They were there for a Commonweath conference.
Kwame Nkrumah with the famous civil right activist Dr Martin Luther King at Accra
Kwame Nkrumah with Che Guevera
Dr Nkrumah in a swimming mood
Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie and Ghana’s prime minister and first President Kwame Nkrumah during the formation of the Organization of African Unity in Addis Ababa
Dr Nkrumah with his son Gamal and daughter Samia Yaba.
CREDIT: Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, Prime Minister of Ghana, chats with United Nations official Ralph Bunche, 1958. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. Reproduction Number LC-USZ62-112313.This phenomena of the United States not experiencing military warfare within its borders provided the opportunity for the US economy to benefit tremendously from the demand for war machinery. Unemployment during the period of US involvement in WWII, 1941-1945, was only 1.2 percent, the massive human idleness of the 1930s was absorbed in the military and war industries. By the end of the war, the US had become the top industrial nation in the world with the defeat of Japan and Germany. Britain's economy suffered greatly as a result of the war because its cities and industrial centers were extensively bombed by German warplanes in 1939-1940.
Hard Times in America
Nkrumah arrived in the United States in 1935 and immediately began to pursue a college degree at Lincoln University. He was almost penniless when he arrived at Lincoln and talked with the University's president and made arrangements to take the entrance examination, in which he passed, and was therefore awarded a part-time job at the school and a scholarship. Lincoln University was established in 1854, it was the first university in America that was designed to give higher education of people of African descent. The people involved in setting up Lincoln was Reverend John Miller Dickey, a minister of the Presbyterian faith, and his Quaker wife, Sarah Cresson Dickey.
Lincoln University Football Squad of 1939 -1941. Sitting: 2nd from Left Dr. Ebenezer Ako Adjei Standing: 1st from left Dr. Kwame Nkrumah
President of Ghana Kwame Nkrumah (1909 - 1972) with his wife Fathia Nkrumah (nee Rizk, 1932 - 2007), circa 1963
President Nkrumah in a chat with Prsident Johnson at the White house
W. E. B. Du Bois (holding cane) with Ghanaian president Kwame Nkrumah in 1962.
Kwame Nkrumah and chairman Mao of China
Fidel Castro and Ghanaian Pan-Africanist, Kwame Nkrumah
Mrs. Ruth Botsio (nee Whittaker, the beautiful and hard politician wife of Kojo botsio;Kwame Nkrumah;Mrs. Komla Agbeli Gbedemah. Caption: Premier of Ghana Kwame Nikrumah (C) walking with Mrs. Komla Gbedemah (L) and Mrs. Kojo Botsio (R) at the Ghana Liberation Ceremony. 01 Dec 1959
After the release of CPP leaders from prison. From left to Right: Kojo Botsio, Kwame Nkrumah (receiving a candlelight),Komla Agbeli Gbedemah (Afro Gbede the great Santaclausian organizer) and the intrepid Kofi Baako,the father of Abdul Malik Kweku Baako of Crusading Guide.
A year later, the constitution was amended to provide for a Prime Minister on 10 March 1952, and Nkrumah was elected to that post by a secret ballot in the Assembly, 45 to 31, with eight abstentions on 21 March.
Sir Charles Arden-Clarke (C) standing with Ghana Prime Minister Kwame Nkrumah (L) during the Ghana independence ceremonies. Accra, Ghana March 1957 Mark Kauffman Photo from ‘Life’
7th March 1957: First Prime Minister of Ghana Dr Kwame Nkrumah (1909 - 1972) at the rally celebrating Ghanaian independence in Accra stadium in front of 50,000 Africans. He is joined by Governor General Charles Arden-Clarke and HRH Duchess of Kent. (Photo by Central Press/Getty Images)
ugust 1959: The Queen receives President Nkrumah (1909 - 1972) of Ghana at Balmoral, seen here outside with Princess Anne. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
The Big-Six of Ghana
In 1960, Ghana became a republic and Nkrumah, its president. Following a course of international neutrality and political cautiousness, he sought economic and technical aid from the U.S. and the Soviet Union. He visited New York to address the United Nations General Assembly. While there, he renewed old acquaintances and was welcomed by an enthusiastic audience that included Minister Malcolm X, Congressman Adam Clayton Powell, and Chuck Stone of the American Committee on Africa. (Africa was becoming an area of interest to Black Americans). At the UN, Nkrumah was very explicit in his remarks concerning the colonizers and the wretched conditions they created (and left) in Africa. He said in part, "....The flowing tide of African nationalism sweeps everything before it and constitutes a challenge to the colonial powers to make a just restitution for the years of injustice and crimes committed against our continent..... For years Africa has been the footstool of colonialism and imperialism, exploitation and degradation.... But Africa does not seek vengeance. Africa wants her freedom! It is a simple call, but it is also a signal lighting a red warning to those who would tend to ignore it."
Dr Nkrumah with Kojo Botsio and George Padmore at a function
Kwame Nkrumah,the first Ghanaian leader with his wife Fathia and some chiefs
Nkrumah and Kojo botsio
*In the early morning hours of 24 Feb., 1966, Ghana's armed forces, with the cooperation of the National Police, took over government in "Operation Cold Chop", a well organized coup d'etat. The first announcement made from Radio Ghana said that the coup was led by Kotoka Nkrumah`s statue was pulled down! Here children are seen standing on Nkrumah`s statue.*
Prime Minister of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah (C) arriving at the White House, Washington, DC, US - July 1958
Nkrumah never returned to Ghana, but he continued to push for his vision of African unity. He lived in exile in Conakry, Guinea, as the guest of President Ahmed Sékou Touré, who made him honorary co-president of the country. He read, wrote, corresponded, gardened, and entertained guests. Despite retirement from public office, he was still frightened of western intelligence agencies. When his cook died, he feared that someone would poison him, and began hoarding food in his room. He suspected that foreign agents were going through his mail, and lived in constant fear of abduction and assassination. In failing health, he flew to Bucharest, Romania, for medical treatment in August 1971. He died of skin cancer in April 1972 at the
Nkrumah was buried in a tomb in the village of his birth, Nkroful, Ghana. While the tomb remains in Nkroful, his remains were transferred to a large national memorial tomb and park in Accra.
Sons, Daughter and Grand Child of Ghana's First President, Osagyefo Dr Kwame Nkrumah hold each other's hands as they move to lay a wreath at the burial service held for Madam Fathia Nkrumah at the forecourt of the State House.
Over his lifetime, Nkrumah was awarded honorary doctorates by Lincoln University, Moscow State University; Cairo University in Cairo, Egypt; Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland; Humboldt University in the former East Berlin; and many other universities.
In 2000, he was voted Africa's man of the millennium by listeners to the BBC World Service.
Bronze Statue of Dr Kwame Nkrumah at Nkrumah Mausoleum in Accra
Works by Kwame Nkrumah
Statue 0f Dr Nkrumah the founding father of OAU at AU heaquarters in Addis Ababa,Ethiopia
SOME MEMORABLE PHOTOS OF GHANA`S FIRST LEADER
1959 Press Photo Dr.Nkrumah ,Ghana with the Queen and her family
The Duchess of Kent dancing with President Nkrumah
President Nkrumah and first lady Fathia
01 Jul 1958
Prime Minister of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah (C) with Amb. Daniel Chapman (2L) and Kojo Botsio who is the nation`s third chief director of ministry of Agriculture (2R) at Mt. Vernon
(L to R) Kofi Baako minister of Education and information Kojo Botsio, Kwame Nkrumah our first president, and Wiley T. Buchanan at the Lincoln Memorial. (Photo by Ed Clark//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
Date created: 01 Jul 1958
Caption: Premier of Ghana Kwame Nkrumah (L) talking to Ghanaian politician Kojo Botsio. 01 Dec 1959
01 Jul 1958
Prime Minister of Ghana, Nkrumah Kwame (C) with Komla Agbeli Gbedemah (2L) and Kojo Botsio (L) greeting embassy people.
01 Jul 1958
Emotions time at independence; 01 Mar 1957 (L-R) Ghana Politicians A. Caseley Hayford, Komla Agbeli Gbedemah, Kwame Nkrumah, Kojo Botsio, and Krobo Edusei at the Ghana independence ceremonies.
Gold Coast Officials Visit UN Headquarters. From left to right: Dr. Ralph Bunche, Principal Director of the UN Division of Trusteeship; Mr. Kwame Nkrumah, Leader of Government Business in the Gold Coast Legislative Assembly; Mr. Trygvie Lie, UN Secretary-General; Mr. Kojo Botsio, Minister of Education and Social Welfare of the Gold Coast; and Mr. Wilfrid Benson, Director of the UN Division of Information from Non-Self-Governing Territories, in Mr. Lie's office at United Nations Headquarters. 06 June 1951 United Nations, New York
The Three Musketeers: "All for one, One for All."That is what Gbdemah,Nkrumah
and Botsio were!!
Julius Nyerere first president of Tanzania and PM Nkrumah
Nkrumah with his top security brass
Caption: 21st July 1956: Dr Kwame Nkrumah (1902 - 1972), prime minister of the Republic of Ghana, having his thumb inked to guard against double voting at the Gold Coast Elections. Nkrumah was returned to power.
PM Nkrumah of Ghana and Nigerian politician Chief Anthony Enahoro
President Ahmed Sekou Toure of Guinea and Nkrumah.
12th November 1961: Kwame Nkrumah (1909 - 1972), the Prime Minister of Ghana with Queen Elizabeth II at a state banquet at the Ambassador's Hotel in Accra. Ghana in honour of the royal visit on the second day of the Queen's tour of the country. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)